114 TExES Mathematics / Science 4 – 8 Exam Practice Questions

1. The basics of math include:

A. Geography
B. Fractions
C. Calculus
D. All of the above

2. Areas of mathematics include:

A. History and Social Studies
B. Biology
C. Probability and Statistics
D. All of the above

3. Which of the following is not a basic algebraic concept?

A. Patterns
B. Fractions
C. Equivalence
D. Balance

4. Reasons to discuss the history of science may include:

A. Scientific theories have not changed throughout the years
B. To discover how a better way was discovered later
C. To get higher grades
D. All of the above

5. Areas of science include:

A. Natural Science
B. Social Science
C. Formal Science
D. All of the above

6. Scientific method is used to:

A. Investigate an event and integrate information
B. Memorize information
C. Prove that science follows a predictable path
D. All of the above

7. Which step is not part of the scientific method?

A. Question posed
B. Research done
C. Earlier tests are ignored
D. Analysis

8. The disciplines in Life Science include:

A. Statistics and logic
B. Human Behavior
C. Microbiology
D. All of the above

9. The unifying principles of biology include:

A. Cell and Gene theories
B. Evolution
C. Homeostasis
D. All of the above

10. Assessments in math and science evaluate students’ ability to:

A. Recall facts
B. Reason and solve problems
C. Memorize information
D. All of the above


1. Answer: B

Math explains the logic of and relationship between numbers. It is used every day in countless ways. In order to minimize potential math phobia, teachers need to make the subject relevant to the students’ lives and use examples with which they are familiar and that make sense to them. In order to do that, learning the basics is critical because all math concepts are built on addition, division, fractions and shapes. All mathematical relationships flow from these concepts. It is imperative students understand one concept before moving on to the next. If they fail to grasp the basics, students become confused as they progress to higher levels because they are unable to apply applicable background knowledge when introduced to geometry, algebra, probability and statistics.

2. Answer: C

Mathematics is a formal science of structure, order and relationships and is considered the basic language and foundation of all the other sciences. It evolved from counting, measuring and describing shapes. Some areas and their definitions:

Arithmetic: A system to count numbers using addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Algebra: An abstract form of arithmetic using symbols to represent numbers
Geometry: The relationship of points, lines, angles, surfaces and solids
Probability: The chance random events will occur
Statistics: The collection, organization and analysis of data
Trigonometry: The relationship of the sides and angles of triangles
Calculus: The limits, differentiation and integration of the functions of variables
3. Answer: B

There are basic concepts in algebra that allow generalizations about “unknowns.” Patterns and functions represent change and relationships. Repeating patterns show the same unit over and over again. In growth patterns, each unit is dependent upon the one before it as well as its position in the pattern. The function is the relationship between values, i.e., the second depends on the first. Once functional relationships are understood, symbols are used as an abstract stand-in for the relationships. Equivalence and balance are critical concepts in understanding algebraic equations. The equal sign represents some type of relationship between the numbers and symbols on each side of the sign. If a calculation is performed on one side, the same calculation must be performed on the other side. Each side is equal and they must balance.

4. Answer: B

Adolescents come to school with background knowledge and a basic understanding of how things work. They have reached conclusions based on their perception of the physical world and what they learned in previous classes. A wise teacher uses students’ knowledge and natural curiosity when introducing and explaining complicated scientific concepts. He/she builds on ideas already known and corrects any misconceptions. Teachers should explain that science has a history. Students need to be familiar with the socio-economic environment in which a theory was introduced in order to truly understand why something did or did not work, why it may have been proven wrong or why a better way was discovered with later experimentation.

5. Answer: D

Natural Science is concerned with the natural world. Social Science studies human behavior. Both are based on empirical evidence, which is observable data that can be verified by other scientists working in similar situations under the same conditions. Formal Science is the systematic study of a specific area. It is essential to developing hypotheses, theories and laws used in other scientific disciplines, i.e., describing how things work (natural science) and how people think and why they do what they do individually and as a society (social sciences). It is based on a priori evidence, which proceeds from a theory or assumption rather than observable phenomena. Applied Science is using the results of scientific research in any of the natural, social and formal sciences and adapting it to address human needs.

6. Answer: A

Scientific Method is a set of procedures used to study natural phenomena. It provides guidelines with which to pose questions, analyze data and reach conclusions. It is used to investigate an event, gain knowledge or correct earlier conclusions about the occurrence and integrate the new information with previously learned data. Researchers pose hypotheses and design experiments and studies to test them. The process must be objective, documented and shared with other researchers, so the results can be verified by replicating the study in similar situations under the same conditions. Scientific method rarely follows a predictable path. The testing of one hypothesis usually leads to other questions, which leads to the formation of other hypotheses.

7. Answer: C

The steps described are not necessarily used in exactly the same way in all sciences. Sometimes they happen at the same time or in a different order and may be repeated during the course of the study, but should be applied with intelligence, imagination and creativity. The following sequence is the one used most of the time:

A question is asked about a natural phenomenon. It should be stated in specific language to focus the inquiry.
The subject is thoroughly researched. Previous test results are studied. It is important to understand what the earlier experiment(s) proved or disproved.
With information gleaned from researching the topic, a hypothesis is formed about a cause or effect of the event or its relationship to other occurrences.
An experiment is designed and conducted to test the hypothesis and gather information.
The resulting data is analyzed to determine if they support or refute the hypothesis.
8. Answer: C

Life science or biology is the study of living organisms, their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution and distribution. The word biology is Greek. “Bio” means life. “Logos” means speech. “Biology” literally means, “to talk about life.” This science studies how living things began, divides them into species, describes what they do and how they interact with and relate to each other and the rest of the natural world. The disciplines in the life sciences are grouped by the organisms they study: Botany studies plants; zoology studies animals and microbiology studies microorganisms. These groups are further divided into smaller, specialized categories based on the level at which they are studied and the methods used to study them, i.e. biochemistry studies the chemistry of life while ecology studies how organisms interrelate in the natural world. Applied fields of the life sciences such as medicine and genetic research combine multiple specialized categories.

9. Answer: D

Cell Theory: The cell is the basic building block of all living things. It is the smallest unit of life able to function on its own. There are two kinds of cells: Prokaryotic which are present only in bacteria and eukaryotic found in all other life forms. New cells form by dividing from existing cells.
Evolution: As a result of natural selection and changes in the gene pool (genetic drift), inherited traits morph from one generation to the next.
Gene Theory: The traits of all living organisms are encoded in their DNA; the chromosome component that carries genetic information. Biochemical characteristics are capable of adapting to changes in the environment, but the only way these adaptations can be transferred to the genes is through evolution.
Homeostasis: A self-regulating, physiological process that keeps biological systems stable and in proper balance internally, no matter what is happening in the external environment.

10. Answer: C

The U.S. Department of Education established criteria for testing comprehension of math and science concepts using recommendations from the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Students in both disciplines are required to not only know facts but also need to be able to integrate those facts into previously acquired information by using critical thinking skills developed through studying these subjects. In other words, students need to be able to use the facts in practical applications found in the real world. The assessments developed by educators, curriculum specialists and the business community emphasize the importance of assessing students’ ability to reason, understand concepts, solve problems, evaluate results and communicate knowledge of the subject matter. The tests attempt to measure whether students can take cognitive skills learned in math and science, apply them in other disciplines and use them outside of school in meaningful ways.